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乌兹根与绍逻巴沙特遗址Uzgen and Shorobashat sites

2018-4-29 12:21| 发布者: IICC| 查看: 70| 评论: 0

摘要: Ancient settlement of Uzgen is the centre of the oasis rich of monuments of settled and nomadic people, dated in a wide chronological range. It belongs to a zone of early contacts on the Silk Road, being the most eastern city centre of Davan, as the city
Ancient settlement of Uzgen is the centre of the oasis rich of monuments of settled and nomadic people, dated in a wide chronological range. It belongs to a zone of early contacts on the Silk Road, being the most eastern city centre of Davan, as the city of Ju-chen known on Chinese sources is traditionally localised here in a context of military expeditions of 104-99 BC. Another hypothesis is that ancient Ju-chen is Shorobashat, the largest site in eastern Fergana located along Zhazy (Yassy) river, which has four-part structure with fortifications, covering the area of more than 70 hectares. Main period of development is IV-I centuries BC, at the turn of the era nuclear part of the city migrated to the area where now ruins of Uzgen site are located. Medieval written sources say that the city of Uzgen was on the border of Muslim and nomadic (not yet adopted Islam) worlds. Kosh-Bulak settlement is located on high cape of the right bank of Zhazy (Yassy) river, trapezium-shaped; the sizes 150 x 200m, walls are traced along the perimeter. The settlement is protected by deep ditches from the north and the east. Neighborhood has traces of habitation, too. This settlement had strategic value to control entrance and exit of Zhazy valley, approaches to Shorobashat and Uzgen, and exits from various gorges. One of the branches of Fergana line of the Silk Road went from here, upwards by the river Zhazy, through mountain passes, to the areas of Inner Tien-Shan and southern shore of Issyk-Kul, and further to China. End of X centuries AD, during the expansion of the Karahanid state, Uzgen became capital of the western part of the empire for a short time, and then for a long time remained as a center of Fergana. It is considered that Kara-Kidans kept their treasury here. Uzgen had endured Mongolian invasion, continued to function at the time of Timur and Timurids. Uzgen site is situated on four hills stretching along the Kara-Darya river. The third hills, having solid defensive structures, carried out citadel functions, the others were Shakhristans. Rabad was lower, occupying considerable territory between two rivers. Three mausoleums and minaret, known as the Uzgen architectural complex, are located in the east of the fourth Shakhristan, on a necropolis. Mausoleum complex consist of three fired-brick buildings, closely attached to each other along one line. The earliest mausoleum was built at the turn of XI-XII centuries AD. Facades are decorated with architectural terracotta and carved plaster. Wide belts of inscriptions written in Kufi, Naskh, Suls and vegetative ornament cover them. Inscriptions testify that the representatives of Uzgen branches of Karahanid dynasty and their military leaders are buried in the Northern and Southern chambers. They lived in a period from the middle till the end of XII centuries AD (three dates have remained - 1152, 1186, 1187). The minaret is located to the northwest from the mausoleums, is dated back to middle of XI centuries AD, and consists of stylobate, octahedral base and the conic body with figured bricklaying. Uzgen architectural complex demonstrates development of domical and portal architecture in a time span, and its decor is considered as "encyclopedia of ornament" of Karahanid epoch. Excavations in 1988-1989, between minaret and tombs, revealed a monumental fired brick construction, possibly, ruins of the medrese, mentioned by Dzhamal -Karshi in the end of XIII centuries AD. In 0, 4 km to the north, remains of a potter's workshop, of the end of XII centuries AD, with four rectangular furnaces are found in the middle of modern city. Uzgen was a connecting point on the Silk Road with intensive political, economic, trading and cultural contacts from antiquity and the Middle Ages till modern age. The architectural complex is a model of evolution of architecture in premongolian period.

The modern city of Uzgen is located on the territory of ancient site, but its size is much less. Citadel and Shakhristans have been preserved relatively, however they are also disturbed by modern structures. Officially the complex is a part of "Sulaiman-Too" museum complex with a representative in Uzgen responsible for its protection and management. Uzgen Architectural Complex is on the State list of monuments of national importance and has delimited boundaries.  Restoration of the complex repeatedly carried out throughout ХХ century, as a whole have not affected authenticity and integrity of monuments, except for bulkhead, built on top of the minaret in 1924. New National Program on Cultural Heritage set the site of Uzgen with its monuments as a priority for immediate actions on protective zoning. Shorobashat is also on the State list of monuments of national importance. Local administrations are in charge of legal and physical protection at the local level, there is a museum at school where excavation materials are stored. Remoteness of the site and maintenance by local community are the main factors of preservation of its authenticity and integrity.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component with other similar properties, whether on the Silk Roads or not, and the reasons that make the property stand out: 1. This site differs in duration of functioning: antiquity, the Middle Ages, modern history. 2. Border between settled and nomadic worlds passed across this site. 3. Administrative functions, economic potential, active minting of coins. 4. Uzgen architectural complex demonstrates development of domical and portal constructions and architectural decoration of the Premongolian epoch.

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