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Cultural Environment of Manas Ordo

2018-4-29 12:27| 发布者: IICC| 查看: 136| 评论: 0

摘要: Sites of these series are located in the northwest of the country, in the upper Talas valley, on the right bank of the river Kenkol, inflow of Talas river, in the entrance of the Kenkol gorge. They were connected with the Silk Road branch, serving sub-reg
Sites of these series are located in the northwest of the country, in the upper Talas valley, on the right bank of the river Kenkol, inflow of Talas river, in the entrance of the Kenkol gorge. They were connected with the Silk Road branch, serving sub-region of Semirechie and South Kazakhstan in the Middle Ages. The series consists of monuments of tangible and intangible heritage on the territory of Manas-Ordo complex and its vicinity. The first group includes archaeological monuments of different historical epoch:
- barrows of the well-known Kenkol burial ground (end of the I-st millennia BC - first half of the I-st millenia AD) connected with Huns and entitled the whole archaeological culture of the region; Rich archaeological material, including number of finds of silk clothes, demonstrate communications with the various historical and cultural regions located along the Silk Road.
- petroglyphs, located near to the burial ground which repertoire reflects an economic-ceremonial life of the nomadic population, dated from the same epoch.
- architectural monument - mausoleum of XIV century AD, a single-chamber cube-shaped construction; ceiling with two domes: internal dome of spherical form and external - ribbed peaked roof. Ornamented portal is in the southern wall. The mausoleum belonged to one of Chagatai princesses, but Kyrgyz people traditionally connect it with the Kyrgyz epic hero Manas.
- Muslim cemetery of the late Middle Ages which was functioning until the end 60th of XX century.
Kenkol gorge is rich in different types of nomadic monuments dated from the early Iron Age to XVIII centuries AD inclusive. Petroglyphs and barrows make considerable part. Ancient Turkic runic inscriptions were also detected. In 4 km to the northwest there is one of the largest medieval sites of the valley - Ak-Tobe (Talassky), identified with Tekabket which is known in written sources as a city at the mountains with silver mines. The intangible cultural heritage is presented by various rituals and the ceremonies connected with initiation of Manaschy-storyteller of national epos Manas, and also with different pre-Islamic beliefs - Shamanizm, often presented by women, cults of trees, waters, mountains, fertility, animal-worship, including ant heaps worship. Throughout long time traditional form of land tenure, i.e. use of summer pastures - djailoo in Kenkol gorge, has not changed. It is important that the epos "Manas" remains an active social factor and its influence to the modern Kyrgyz society is huge. The sites of these series demonstrate economic, trading and cultural exchanges both on regional, and on international levels.

the State system of preservation of cultural and natural heritage of Manas-Ordo is very effective, that is because of two reasons: value of this complex in a spiritual life of Kyrgyz people;  high status of protection - the site is directly subordinate to the Government of KR. Integrity of the Kenkol burial site was affected by stadium building, however the significant amount of barrows has still remained. Petroglyph sites are well preserved; preservation and presentation activities are ongoing. Restoration of the mausoleum of XIV century was done repeatedly throughout XX century. Present state is stable. Natural sites: sacred springs, trees, bushes, part of the river Kenkol limiting sacral territory from the north, ant heaps, Mountain, pilgrim's routes are in a good condition. Manas-Ordo is an example of successful interaction of the state system of preservation and management and the traditional mechanisms of protection. Documentation activities at the complex and its vicinity and development of the   protection zones are being finished.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component with other similar properties, whether on the Silk Roads or not, and the reasons that make the property stand out: Part of the branch, which leads into upper Talas valley is an indissoluble part of the route lying through Talas valley, to the South Kazakhstan, Chach and further. This route actively functioned in the Middle Ages. However, written sources say, that pass through the Kara-Buura gorge functioned in antiquity, through the pass in Talas Ala-Too to Chatkal, and therefrom to northeast Fergana. The part of the Chinese troops sent to suppress Hun's leader Chzhi-Chzhi in 36 BC, whose quarter was in the upper Talas, took this route. In earlier middle ages in this zone the centres of the settled and city culture were formed along the route. Topography and constructive features of the settlements have similarities with cities and settlements of the neighboring sub-regions - the Chui valley, Issyk Kul. In IX-XII centuries the upper and middle parts of the valley are called in written sources the ore area Sheldzi. It was one of the main suppliers of silver in the Muslim world, along with Chach and Chatkal valley.

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