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铁尔梅兹Termiz

2017-11-20 11:58| 发布者: IICC| 查看: 292| 评论: 0

摘要: 乌兹别克斯坦公元前4世纪至公元13世纪很多纪念碑和保存下来的遗迹证明泰尔梅兹与伊朗阿契美尼德王朝、古希腊及古罗马的城市是同一时期的产物。
Ancient Termiz
Uzbekistan
乌兹别克斯坦
公元前4世纪至公元13世纪
很多纪念碑和保存下来的遗迹证明泰尔梅兹与伊朗阿契美尼德王朝、古希腊及古罗马的城市是同一时期的产物。

Ancient Termiz includes Qoratepa, Fayaztepa, Zurmala Mortar, Qirq-Qiz, Khakim at-Termiziy, Sultan-Saodat, Kokildor Khonaqo, Djarqurgan Minaret and Kampirtepa. Old Termiz is located in 5 km to the northwest from Termiz, on the right branch of Amudarya River. A total area is 500 hectares consists of four parts, a citadel - Kala, two shakhristans (city) and rabad - the suburb, divided by the fortifications. Capacity of the cultural layers from 2 till 19 m on the citadel. It has arisen in IV - III centuries B.C. The city settlement is formed by the fortress, probably known as Demetriya in III - II centuries B.C. In Kushan period, the large administrative and ideological center of the Northern Bactria was the city of Tarmit with the several Buddhist monasteries - Fayaztepa and Qoratepa. Special blossoming has reached at the IX - X centuries - beginning of XIII century, being the largest trade center-craft of the Northern Toharistan. Mongols destroyed the city in 1220. Partially grows roots in the XVI - XVII centuries. Archeological excavations discovered Buddhist monasteries, palace of Termiz shahs, mosque, buildings of metalworker and potters, walls, economic-inhabited complexes. Necropolis Sultan-Saodat, Kokildor Khonaqo, complex of Qirq-Qiz, the mausoleum Al-Khakim at-Termiziy, Zurmal Mortar, Djarqurgan Minaret, Oq-Ostona Bobo, Kampirtepa are located in the territory of the ancient Termiz.
UNESCO is associated with 2500th anniversary of foundation of the Termiz city in 2001.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property [see Paragraphs 78-95 of the Operational Guidelines]:
The antique name of the city is Demetreya. Earlier medieval and medieval age monuments until XIX century A.D. show dynamics of the historical development of Termiz during almost 3 millennia. Moreover, the most ancient monuments of Termiz are in the stage of studying, and discovered parts have preserved its authenticity. Considering these circumstances, ancient Termiz should be included in the unique objects of culture.
Ancient Termez, which came down to us with its archaeological and architectural monuments, located in the area of 500 ha, generally, meets the requirements for integrity. Each of its constituent parts preserved its initial structure of planning; its constructions preserved their initial architectural appearance. Although, the majority of ancient monuments, which are the examples of adobe architecture, are in a ruined condition, there are some documentary evidences, which could serve as a reference points in their restoration.
Ancient Termiz includes Qoratepa, Fayaztepa, Zurmala Mortar, Qirq-Qiz, Khakim at-Termiziy, Sultan-Saodat, Kokildor Khonaqo, Djarqurgan Minaret and Kampirtepa.

The antique name of the city is Demetreya. Earlier medieval and medieval age monuments until XIX century A.D. show dynamics of the historical development of Termiz during almost 3 millennia. Moreover, the most ancient monuments of Termiz are in the stage of studying, and discovered parts have preserved its authenticity. Considering these circumstances, ancient Termiz should be included in the unique objects of culture.
Ancient Termez, which came down to us with its archaeological and architectural monuments, located in the area of 500 ha, generally, meets the requirements for integrity. Each of its constituent parts preserved its initial structure of planning; its constructions preserved their initial architectural appearance. Although, the majority of ancient monuments, which are the examples of adobe architecture, are in a ruined condition, there are some documentary evidences, which could serve as a reference points in their restoration.
Buddhist Temple Complex of Kara Tepe
Located on three hills, the Buddhist Temple with its constituent parts and architecture is identified with cave Buddhist monasteries. In the stone rock of the hill prayerrooms were cut with typical cells for monks. Above-ground part also has a place of ritual character, organized around courtyard and shaded with sheds and and having with stupas.
Buddhist Temple Complex of Fayaz Tepe
The complex in terms of architectural form and decorative finish, with its items, found during archaeological excavations (sculptures, utensils), is identified with the Buddhist temple facilities of sangarama type. The plan of the walls and a detached shrine - stupa, are in a good condition. Ruined parts of the complex were conserved. The monument serves as a museum and is open for tourist visits.
Zurmala Buddhist Stupa
The monument, according to the form and archaeological remains, found in the surrounding area, was identified with a large stupa, erected from adobe material, in the Kushan epoch. Despite the fact that the top part of it was lost, its details and elements, especially, its typical form, certifies, that it is a stupa of the large Buddhist Temple. Generally, the Stupa was preserved in its initial dimensions.
Complex of Khakim at-Termiziy
Initial architectural parameters, decorative finish of the premises of the complex of Khakim at-Termiziy, despite reinforcement measures, undertake at different times, did not change. The monument was preserved in a good condition. Its historical environment was also preserved in its initial appearence.
Kyrk-Kyz Complex
Although there are some ruined parts, the complex preserved its planning of rooms, general architectural composition and appearance, the integrity of facades. Minor restoration and conservation works were done on the monument. The complex is one of the rare country estates (kjoshks), preserved in the-territory of Uzbekistan.
Sultan-Saodat Complex
The complex preserved all main elements of architecture of burial vaults, the lost parts of which were restored according to their initial appearance. The integrity of the composition and planning was preserved. Also, surrounding historical and landscape environment was preserved.
Khanqah Kokildora
Khaqah Kokildora was preserved in its initial dimensions and corresponds to the typical characteristics. At the beginning of the XXI century on the monument restoration and beautification works were done.
Djarkurgan Minaret
Minaret was preserved in its initial appearance.
Site of ancient town of Kampyr Tepe
The site is in a ruined condition. Planning, borders and plans of independent constructions were revealed through the archaeological excavations. Found materials were deciphered and indentified. The results of the excavations certify to the authenticity of the monument and allows identifying it with the ancient city of Alexandria Oxiana.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected
Ancient Termez
Termez is a well preserved and outstanding site, surrounded by a unique landscape. For 27 centuries it played a significant role in cultural exchange, and was one of the most important strategic points on the Great Silk Road. The city, encompassing the territory of 500 ha, has many monuments of tangible culture, relating to Greco-Bactrian, Kushan and Islamic civilizations. In the Central Aia the Ancient Termez was one of the centers of dissemination of the Buddhist culture and of early Islamic philosophy.
Fayaztepa
Fayaz tepa is not a single monument of Buddhist culture in Uzbekistan. The unique temple complex of Qoratepa locates in 1 km. to the southwest from it. Analogical monuments with the mortars have researched in Ayritam and Dalverzin, Gandahar - India.
The complex of Fayaz Tepe combined an original technology of construction culture (usage of adobe materials), architectural ideas and beautiful decorated finishing, all of which allow revealing important stages of Buddhist architecture development.
Zurmala Mortar
The stupa of Zurmala in the comparing of the mortars, discovered in Ayrimtam, Qoratepa, Fayaztepa and others, by its size, it is 10 times bigger than same age constructions. Seemingly, it had a special value in the compare with the analogical monuments, erected in Epoch of Great Kushan on the territory of Uzbekistan and contiguous countries.
The Stupa, in terms of dimensions, ten times exceeds all known stupas of the region. Its significance in construction culture also lies in its adobe materials, preserved to our days, despite natural impacts (earthquakes, atmospheric moisture, etc).
Qirq-Qiz
Minimal conservation works have been made in Qirq-Qiz complex. The monument in a greater part is preserved, but only in ruined condition. The rests of caravanserai in Merv could serve as analogue of Qirq-Qiz. Prototypes of such structures it is possible to see on the rests of ancient locks in Khorezm, for example Guldursun, Qiz-Kala on Suton-Kala in Merv. Qirq-Qiz is one of the rare preserved monuments from the raw in territory of medieval Termiz.
The complex is a large one and represents a palace-estate (kjoshk), created applying the original technology of construction culture. Its architectural dimensions, usage of adobe materials, two-tier planning do not have analogues in the Samanid epoch of development of Architecture. The complex stands out in terms of historical and architectural values, which make it an outstanding monument of adobe architecture of Central Asia.
Khakim at-Termiziy
Analogue of the complex are Kusam ibn Abbas Mausoleum in Shokhi-Zinda in Samarkand, Pahlavon Makhmud Complex in Khiva and others.
The complex, as well as the Ancient Termez in general, in the IX-XII centuries, were considered the most important centers of early Islamic culture of Central Asia. Natives of Termez played leading roles in dissemination of Islamic beliefs; the personality of Khakim at-Termiziy was known as a great theologian and his tombstone - as a sacred place for all muslims of Central Asia. The architecture of the complex combined unique for the XI-XII centuries techniques of costruction and decoration styles, which defined the direction of the future development of architecture of cult constructions of the region.
Sultan-Saodat
Sulton-Saodat as the type ensemble buildings, concerns to earlier period. Subsequently in Samarkand and in other cities there are similar constructions, as Shakhi-Zinda, the mausoleum Guri-Amir, and with the domestic shape Khazrati-imam in Shakhrisyabz. The Architectural decor especially in brick facing can be compared with well-known Samanids Mausoleum in Bukhara, mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun. It is not excluded, that the Sulton-Saodat has formed the basis for development here medieval Termiz
Compositionally, the complex is uniformly connected with oblong courtyard of the burial vaults of Termez Seyids (who played leading roles in political history of Central Asia), relating to different times. Architecture of the complex demonstrates the development of cult constructions (burial vaults) during six centuries.
Kokildor Khonaqo
Typological difference from similar constructions on territories of Uzbekistan and its relation with monuments in Balkh make this object outstanding, reflecting school of architecture of Tokharistan and Balkh.
The Khanqah in terms of its original planning lay out and decorative finish represents a unique object in the region.
Djarqurgan Minaret 
This minaret similar in techniques of performance - palace of Termiz governors (XI - XII centuries), the mosque in the complex Khakim at-Termiziy (XI - XII centuries) mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun district of Surkhandarya Region, and also mausoleum Zul Kifl on the island of «Orol Payg'ambar» in Amudarya. The minaret was exposed to insignificant conservation works. As a whole on 95 % of minaret was preserved in the primeval shape.
Minaret is a unique, original example of cultural traditions, the development of which is observed in the Х - XIX centuries. It reflects a particular direction of Termez School of Architecture.
Kampirtepa
Kampirtepa is the unique city in all Central Asian Regions. The port customs city has been constructed by the Alexander Great, and has identified with the most ancient city Alexandria Ocean. It has not enough analogues. 
It is the trade city (town) of the antiquity, located on the Great Silk Road, and stands in the third place, after Ayritam and Ancient Termez; it played significant role in trade-cultural and spiritual links between East and West; was one of the strategic and ifluental points in dissemination of Buddhist faith and culture during the Kushan period.
City planning and its constructions made a positive impact on further development of town building, architecture and monumental art of Central Asia.




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