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[巴拉沙衮城(布拉纳遗址)] City of Balasagun (Site of Burana)

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发表于 2016-3-14 13:09:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
      Balasagun (Kuz Ordu),established in the 10th century on the site of an older settlement byKarakhanids, was one of the largest medieval cities in Chuy valley. Along withKashgar, Balasagun was one of the capitals of the Eastern Kaganate after theKarakhanid state split up. It is an example of a new development of cities inthe region during the High Middle Ages 11th –12th century A.D., influenced bypolitical, economic and social changes. Its history witnessed new phenomena ofculture, as wide application of various systems of writing, development ofancient Turkic literatures, and introduction of Islamic arts. New politicalculture of governance, ethics and morals rules of Karakhanid Kaganate, thefirst Muslim Turkic state, reflected in literary and philosophical works ofTurkic scientists - Mahmud Kashgari, Yusuf Balasaguni. It was saved fromdestruction by Genghis Khan's Mongols, and was renamed Gobalik (“good city”) inthe 13th century, but the city lost its importance and had disappeared by the15th century.

      The town had a complicated layout covering 25-30 squarekilometers. Archaeologists discovered ruins of a central fortress or palacecomplex dated from 12th – beginning of 13th century A.D., religious buildings, dwellings,a bathhouse (11th – 12th century A.D.), water supply system (ceramic pipesdelivering water, Christian and Muslim cemeteries with examples of inscriptionsin different languages. Two circles of walls surrounded the town with itsarable land, workshops and markets. Although the Karakhanids, practiced Islam,they were tolerant of other religions.



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