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发表于 2016-3-8 11:24:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
[Preamble] 前言
Imbued with a message from the past, the historic monuments of generations of people remainto the present day as living witnesses of their age-old traditions. People arebecoming more and more conscious of the unity of human values and regardancient monuments as a common heritage. The common responsibility to safeguardthem for future generations is recognized. It is our duty to hand them on inthe full richness of their authenticity. 世世代代人民的历史文物建筑,饱含着从过去的年月传下来的信息,是人民千百 年传统的活的见证.人民越未越认识到人类各种价值的统一性,从而把古代的纪念物看作共同的遗产.大家承认,为子孙后代而妥善地保护它们是我们共同的责任.我们 必须一点不走样地把它们的全部信息传下去。
It is essential that the principles guiding the preservation andrestoration of ancient buildings should be agreed and be laid down on aninternational basis, with each country being responsible for applying the planwithin the framework of its own culture and traditions. 绝对有必要为完全保护和修复古建筑建立国际公认的原则,每个国家有义务根据自己的文化和传统运用这些原则。
By defining these basic principles for the first time, the Athens Charter of 1931 contributed towardsthe development of an extensive international movement which has assumedconcrete form in national documents, in the work of ICOM and UNESCO and in theestablishment by the latter of the International Centre for the Study of thePreservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property. Increasing awareness andcritical study have been brought to bear on problems which have continuallybecome more complex and varied; now the time has come to examine the Charterafresh in order to make a thorough study of the principles involved and toenlarge its scope in a new document. 1931 年的雅典宪章,第一次规定了这些基本原则,促进了广泛的国际运动的发展.这个运动落实在各国的文件里,落实在从事文物建筑工作的建筑师和技术人员国际议会(ICOM)的工作里,落实在联合国教科文组织的工作以及它的建立文物的完全保护和修复的国际研究中心(ICCROM).人们越来越注意到,问题已经变得很 复杂,很多样,而且正在继续不断地变得更复杂,更多样;人们已经对问题作了深入的研究.于是,有必要重新检查宪章,彻底研究一下它所包含的原则,并且在一份新的文件里扩大它的范围。
Accordingly, the IInd International Congress of Architects and Techniciansof Historic Monuments, which met in Venice from May 25th to 31st 1964, approvedthe following text: 为此,从事历史文物建筑工作的建筑师和技术人员国际会议第二次会议, 196 4 5 25 日至 31 日在威尼斯开会,通过了以下的决定:
ARTICLE 1. The concept ofan historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but alsothe urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particularcivilization, a significant development or an historic event. This applies notonly to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past which haveacquired cultural significance with the passing of time. 第一项 历史文物建筑的概念,不仅包含个别的建筑作品,而且包含能够见证某种文明,某种有意义的发展或某种历史事件的城市或乡村环境,这不仅适用于伟大的艺术品,也适用于由于时光流逝而获得文化意义的在过去比较不重要的作品。
ARTICLE 2. The conservation andrestoration of monuments must have recourse to all the sciences and techniqueswhich can contribute to the study and safeguarding of the architecturalheritage. 第二项 必须利用有助于研究和白虎建筑遗产的一切科学和技术来保护和修复文物建筑。
ARTICLE 3. The intention inconserving and restoring monuments is to safeguard them no less as works of artthan as historical evidence. 第三项 保护和修复文物建筑, 既要当作历史见证物, 也要当作艺术作品来保护。
ARTICLE 4. It is essential to the conservation of monuments thatthey be maintained on a permanent basis. 第四项保护文物建筑,务必要使它传之永久。
ARTICLE 5. The conservation ofmonuments is always facilitated by making use of them for some socially usefulpurpose. Such use is therefore desirable but it must not change the lay-out ordecoration of the building. It is within these limits only that modificationsdemanded by a change of function should be envisaged and may be permitted. 第五项 为社会公益而使用文物建筑,有利于它的保护.但使用时决不可以变动它的平面布局或装饰.只有在这个限度内,才可以考虑和同意由于功能的改变所要求的修正。
ARTICLE 6. The conservation of amonument implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale. Wherever thetraditional setting exists, it must be kept. No new construction, demolition ormodification which would alter the relations of mass and color must be allowed.第六项 保护一座文物建筑,意味着要适当地保护一个环境.任何地方,凡传统的环境还存在,就必须保护.凡是会改变体形关系和颜色关系的新建,拆除或变动都是决不允许的。
ARTICLE 7. A monument is inseparable from the history to which itbears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all orpart of a monument cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of thatmonument demands it or where it is justified by national or internationalinterest of paramount importance. 第七项一座文物建筑不可以从它所见证的历史和它所从产生的环境中分离出 .不得整个地或局部地搬迁文物建筑,除非为保护它而非迁不可,或者因为国家的或国际的十分重大的利益有此要求。
ARTICLE 8. Items of sculpture,painting or decoration which form an integral part of a monument may only beremoved from it if this is the sole means of ensuring their preservation. 第八项 文物建筑上的绘画,雕刻或装饰只有在非取下便不能保护它们时才可以取下。
ARTICLE 9. The process ofrestoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve andreveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and is based on respectfor original material and authentic documents. It must stop at the point whereconjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work which isindispensable must be distinct from the architectural composition and must beara contemporary stamp. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followedby an archaeological and historical study of the monument. 第九项 修复是一件高度专门化的技术.它的目的是完全保护和再现文物建筑的审美和历史价值,它必须尊重原始资料和确凿的文献.它不能有丝毫臆测.任何一点不可避免的增添部分都必须跟原来的建筑外观明显地区别开来,并且要看得出是当代的东西.不论什么情况下, 修复之前和之后都要对文物建筑进行考古的和历史的研究。
ARTICLE 10. Where traditionaltechniques prove inadequate, the consolidation of a monument can be achieved bythe use of any modem technique for conservation and construction, the efficacyof which has been shown by scientific data and proved by experience. 第十项 当传统的技术不能解决问题时,可以利用任何现代的结构和保护技术来加固文物建筑,但这种技术应有充分的科学根据,并经实验证明其有效。
ARTICLE 11. The valid contributionsof all periods to the building of a monument must be respected, since unity ofstyle is not the aim of a restoration. When a building includes thesuperimposed work of different periods, the revealing of the underlying statecan only be justified in exceptional circumstances and when what is removed isof little interest and the material which is brought to light is of greathistorical, archaeological or aesthetic value, and its state of preservationgood enough to justify the action. Evaluation of the importance of the elementsinvolved and the decision as to what may be destroyed cannot rest solely on theindividual in charge of the work. 第十一项 各时代加在一座文物建筑上的正当的东西都要尊重,因为修复的目的不是追求风格的统一.一座建筑物有各时期叠压的东西时,只有在个别情况下才允许 把被压的底层显示出来,条件是,去掉的东西价值甚小,而显示出来的却有很大的历史,考古和审美价值,而且保存情况良好,还值得显示.负责修复工作的个人不能独自评价所涉及的各部分的重要性和决定去掉什么东西。
ARTICLE 12. Replacements of missingparts must integrate harmoniously with the whole, but at the same time must bedistinguishable from the original so that restoration does not falsify theartistic or historic evidence. 第十二项 补足缺失的部分,必须保持整体的和谐一致,但在同时,又必须使补足的部分跟原来部分明显地区别,防止补足部分使原有的艺术和历史见证失去真实性。
ARTICLE 13. Additions cannot be allowed except in so far as they donot detract from the interesting parts of the building, its traditionalsetting, the balance of its composition and its relation with its surroundings.第十三项 不允许有所添加,除非它们不致于损伤建筑物的有关部分,它的传统布局,它的构图的均衡和它跟传统环境的关系。
ARTICLE 14. The sites ofmonuments must be the object of special care in order to safeguard theirintegrity and ensure that they are cleared and presented in a seemly manner.The work of conservation and restoration carried out in such places should beinspired by the principles set forth in the foregoing articles. 第十四项 必须把文物建筑所在的地段当作专门注意的对象,要保护它们的整体性,要保证用恰当的方式清理和展示它们.这种地段上的保护和修复工作要按前面所说各项原则进行。
ARTICLE 15. Excavationsshould be carried out in accordance with scientific standards and therecommendation defining international principles to be applied in the case ofarchaeological excavation adopted by UNESCO in 1956. 第十五项 发掘必须坚持科学标准, 并且遵守联合国教科文组织1956年通过的关于考古发掘的国际原则的建议.
Ruins must be maintained and measures necessary for the permanentconservation and protection of architectural features and of objects discoveredmust be taken. Furthermore, every means must be taken to facilitate theunderstanding of the monument and to reveal it without ever distorting itsmeaning. 遗址必须保存,必须采取必要的措施永久地保存建 筑面貌和所发现的文物.进一步,必须采取一切方法从速理解文物的意义,揭示它而决不可歪曲它.
All reconstruction workshould however be ruled out "a priori." Only anastylosis, thatis to say, the reassembling of existing but dismembered parts can be permitted.The material used for integration should always be recognizable and its useshould be the least that will ensure the conservation of a monument and thereinstatement of its form. 预先就要禁止任何的重建.只允许把还存在的但已散开的部分重新组合起来.粘合材料必须是可以识别的,而且要尽可能地少用,只要能保护文物和再现它的形状就足够了。
ARTICLE 16. In all works of preservation, restoration or excavation,there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical andcritical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs. Every stage of thework of clearing, consolidation, rearrangement and integration, as well astechnical and formal features identified during the course of the work, shouldbe included. This record should be placed in the archives of a publicinstitution and made available to research workers. It is recommended that thereport should be published. 第十六项 一切保护,修复和发掘工作都要有准确的记录,作有分析有讨论的报告,要有插图和照片。清理,加固,调整和重新组合成整体的每个步骤,以及工作进行过程中的技术和外形的鉴定,都要写在记录和报告里.记录和报告应当存在一个公共机构的档案里, 使研究者都可以读到,最好是公开出版。
The following persons took part in the work of the Committee for draftingthe International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments:


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