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喀什

2021-5-25 11:34| 发布者: 文心雕龙| 查看: 169| 评论: 0

摘要:   喀什位于新疆维吾尔自治区的西南边缘,是中国地理位置最西边的城市。“喀什”一名源于维吾尔语“喀什噶尔”,其意义有“各色砖房”或“玉石集中之地”等多种解释。  喀什地区古代称“疏勒”,是先秦时期的西域古国之一。秦末汉初,这一地区属匈奴管辖。公元前119年,张骞奉旨通西域时进驻疏勒。公元前60年,汉朝设置西域都护府,喀什作为西域的一部 ...





  喀什位于新疆维吾尔自治区的西南边缘,是中国地理位置最西边的城市。“喀什”一名源于维吾尔语“喀什噶尔”,其意义有“各色砖房”或“玉石集中之地”等多种解释。
  喀什地区古代称“疏勒”,是先秦时期的西域古国之一。秦末汉初,这一地区属匈奴管辖。公元前119年,张骞奉旨通西域时进驻疏勒。公元前60年,汉朝设置西域都护府,喀什作为西域的一部分,正式列入中国的版图。到了唐代,这里成为唐朝的重要军事据点,当时朝廷在西域设置安西四镇,喀什噶尔即为其中之一。因地利之便,疏勒国与佛教接触很早。据《后汉书·西域传》的记载,东汉安帝元初年间(1271—1285),疏勒国王的舅舅臣盘曾被遣送至大月氏国作人质,月氏王为他在三个地方分别建了僧院,冬夏迁居。臣盘在月氏国已崇信佛教,后来回到疏勒为王,大力推行佛法,使佛教在疏勒广为流行。公元400年,高僧法显远赴印度时曾途经疏勒,他后来在书中记述了当地的佛教大会。
  五代至宋代,喀什先后为哈喇汗王朝和西辽所管辖。哈喇汗王朝时期,喀什噶尔曾经成为首府。蒙古帝国缔造者成吉思汗率军西征后,喀什被划归其次子察合台的封地。自汉代以来,丝绸之路的南、北、中三条通道都是以喀什作为西出的汇合之处,因此喀什也成为各方商品的集散地与中转站,在丝绸之路的发展过程中有着举足轻重的作用及地位。直至今日,喀什依然留存着闻名遐迩的阿帕克霍加墓(香妃墓)、艾提尕尔清真寺、叶尔羌汗国遗址、莫尔佛塔、石头城等许多历史遗址,吸引着人们到喀什来追寻西域历史文化变迁的足迹。
  喀什独特的大漠绿洲地域环境以及厚重的历史文化沉淀,形成了这里特有的古城风貌与传统的街区形态。这种风貌在古时的中亚、西亚以及中国古西域广泛存在,但自近代以来便已经极为少见。喀什历史街区作为中国现存唯一一处遗留下来的有着典型古西域特色的街区,是研究古代西域文化发展史、古代西域城市变迁史以及新疆发展史极为珍贵的资料。
  >Kashi
  Kashi is located in the southwestern edge of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.As the westernmost city of China the name Kashi had its origin in the Uygur word Kashgar which has multiple meanings including〝colored brick houses"or〝jade converging land".
  Kashi area was ruled by Kingdom〝Shule"which was one of the ancient kingdoms in the Western Regions during pre-Qin times.During the late Qin and early Han period,the area was under the jurisdiction of the Huns.In 119 B.C.,Zhang Qian entered Shule on his mission to connect with the Western Regions.In 60 B.C.,the imperial court of the Han Dynasty set up a Western Regions Frontier Command,Kashi was officially incorporated in the Chinese territory as part of the Western Regions.By Tang Dynasty,Kashi had become an important military stronghold,one of the four towns in Anxi of the Western Regions.Due to geographical proximity,Shule came into contact with Buddhism quite early.According to records in the Book of the Later Han-Western Regions,during the Yuanchu Period(1271-1285)of Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty,uncle of the then Shule king Chen Pan was once repatriated to Dayuezhi as hostage.The Yuezhi king built three monasteries in three places for him to stay in different seasons.Chen Pan was converted to worship Buddhism during his stay there.Later when he returned to Shule andbecame the king,he vigorously promoted Buddhism and enabled its popularization in the kingdom.In 400,when the senior monk Faxian traveled to India he passed Shule.In his book he described the local Buddhist conference.
  From the Five Dynasties to the Song Dynasty,Kashi was ruled by the Karahan Empire and the Western Liao Kingdom successively.Kashi was made the capital city of the Karahan Empire.After the successful westwards expedition by Genghis Khan,founder of the Mongol Empire,Kashi was granted to Chagatai,Genghis Khan's second son as his fief.Since the Han Dynasty,the southern,northern and central routes of the Silk Road had all passed through Kashi where it became the meeting point for westbound travels.As the distribution center and transit point of commodities,Kashi played a pivotal role in the development of the Silk Road.Until this day,Kashi still retains many famous historical sites such as the Apak Hoja Tomb(Fragrant Princess Tomb),the Id Kah Mosque,former site of the Yarkant Kingdom,the Moer Pagoda,the Stone City,etc.all of which attracts people to come to Kashi to track down the vicissitudes of history and culture of the Western Regions.
  The unique regional environment of desert oasis and the heavy historical and cultural precipitation formed Kashi's unique ancient style and traditional district layout,which was very common in Central Asia,West Asia and China's Western Regions in ancient times,but no longer seen in modern times.As the only existing district bearing typical western region characteristics in ancient times,Kashi's historic old district offers valuable information for the study of cultural development and evolution of cities in the Western Regions in ancient times and the development history of Xinjiang.
  塔吉克族的鹰舞
  塔吉克族是中国一个古老的民族,主要聚居在新疆喀什地区的塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县。鹰舞是塔吉克族的民间传统自娱性舞蹈,多以双人舞形式在喜庆佳节或家庭晚会中表演。这种舞蹈源于塔吉克族祖先对鹰的图腾崇拜,因此从内容到形式都模拟鹰的动作。跳舞时,众人围坐或半围坐,男女相邀,成双而舞;有时若干对舞伴同时表演。男子舞姿俊健、纯朴、粗犷,主要动作有伸展双臂,前后摆动,左右旋转,侧身跃起,作雄鹰展翅之势。女子舞步和舞姿与男子略同,步距比男子小而轻盈,双手在头部向里或向外旋抹,动作舒展而柔和。鹰舞的主要伴奏乐器为手鼓和用鹰的翅骨制作的鹰笛。
  Eagle Dance of the Tajiks
  As an ancient people in China,the Tajiks mainly live in Tajik Autonomous County of Taxkorgan County in Kashi area of Xinjiang.Eagle dance is a traditional folk dance of the Tajik people mainly for self-entertainment.It is usually performed as a pas de deux during festival seasons or evening parties at home.This dance originated from Tajik ancestors'worship for eagle totem.So the dance movements imitate eagle's action from content to form.When dancing,male and female dancers would sit in a circle,inviting each other to do the dance in pairs.Sometimes several pairs would dance together.The male dancer's movements are vigorous and graceful,simple and rough,imitating a flying eagle by stretching the arms,rocking back and forth,making left and right spins and leaping sideways.The female dancer's steps and postures are similar to her male partner,only slightly smaller and more agile.She usually stretches her hands beyond her head and makes inward or outward rotation movements with her hands.Major musical instruments accompanying the eagle dance are the tambourine and the eagle bone flute.
  

丝绸之路/方明编著.-合肥: 黄山书社, 2013;

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