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The Site of Kostobe Introduction

2016-5-30 23:58| 发布者: 武子| 查看: 1001| 评论: 0|来自: Nomination Dossier

摘要: (1) Contribution to the Silk Roads' OUV Analyzing the findings of the Kostobe ancient settlement, it can be noted that they are close to findings and works of art from excavations of the Central Asian ...


(1) Contribution to the Silk Roads' OUV

Analyzing the findings of the Kostobe ancient settlement, it can be noted that they are close to findings and works of art from excavations of the Central Asian cities like Afrasiab, Varakhsha, and other famous cultural centers of the Middle East. Because all building horizon is dated by the 9th – 10th centuries it indicates the presence of cultural and commercial relations between the cities of Talas valley located on the line of the Great Silk Road.

(2) General Information

Kostobe settlement is located to the east from Sarykemer village, on the right bank of the river Talas, on the first terrace above the floodplain. Ce n t r a l r ema i n s o f Ko s t o b e s e t t l eme n t a r e rectangular in terms of elevated area (420 × 450 m), surrounded by a double perimeter wall with towers, a moat between the walls and moat at the outer wall. Height of outer rampart is 3.5 m, internal is up to 5 m. Hilly towers preserved to a height of 3.5 m. To the inside part of the settlement led four gates, of them preserved the breaks in the walls. Citadel, the 6th – 12th centuries, is located in the middle of the western wall of the site. Now this is pyramidal hill with flat area at the top. Dimensions at the base of the hill are 70 × 80 m, height is 12-15 m. The entrance to the citadel was through the city gate in the western wall. At the citadel was studied a palace building. Totally investigated 20 premises of the palace, of which there are living rooms, rooms of cultic character, the front (reception), household, as well as a bypass corridor through which it was possible to go around the perimeter of the complex, and enter into any of the outer rooms. Most of the palace walls are made of mud brick tie up laying in a clay solution, and only one wall – the palace courtyard – consists of pakhsa blocks. On the walls of the premises there is a clay plaster in several layers, the floors are evenly coated with a clay lubricant. From wood cut out columns, door banners, jambs, sills and floors and also erected covers over the premises. Ceremonial and religious premises of Kostobe had a rich and varied decor: carved pieces on a thick layer of a clay plaster, architectural details, made of alabaster and painting. Carving clay is colored with colored inks. The palace occupies extreme lateral position, and in fact is the first open space at the entrance to the palace. Palace ensemble on Kostobe includes the temple complex of two buildings: the parade hall-sanctuary and support cult hall. In the central part of the palace the rooms have diverse applications: there were also religious premises and facilities for the reception, and a central distribution center. However, excavations revealed utility rooms – bedroom, dining, etc. They are either located in the eastern part of the complex not fully investigated, or in a separate building near the palace. Peripheral group of premises, situated next to the fortress wall in the first place was subject to repair, alteration and re-equipment. During the existence of the palace these premises changed the shape and purpose for several times, thus to our time they preserved in a poor condition, with faint outline of the walls. Shakhristan 1, the 6th – 12th centuries, is adjacent to the citadel and occupies the southwestern corner of the settlement. Its dimensions are 150 × 150 m. From the rest of the settlement Shakhristan 1 is separated by the wall. Entrance to the territory of Shakhristan is located in the northern wall. It was common for the citadel as well. Shakhristan 2, the 6th – 12th centuries, is the central part of the settlement of Kostobe represents a subrectangular elevated plot (420 × 450 m), surrounded by a perimeter by double wall with towers, a moat between the walls and moat of the outer wall. The height of the outer rampart is 3.5 m, internal one is up to 5 m. Hilly towers preserved to a height of 3.5m. The "tongues" of the towers from the outside goes beyond up to 16-18 meters. Inside the settlement led four gates, they are preserved in the walls breaks. Necropolis 1, the 6th – 9th centuries, is located to the north from the gate. It has a form of sub-rectangular hillock, in its topography there is a clear oval hill, measuring 10 × 7 m and a height of 5 m. From the eastern and northern sides the hill is adjacent by area of 20 m. Necropolis 2, the 6th – 9th centuries, is located 70 m northwest of the necropolis 1. It represents individual domed hills, located on the hillock of sub-triangular shape. The hillock is located behind the outer rampart, adjacent to its northern area. Its northwestern part is separated from the northeastern road, outgoing from the north gate of the settlement. Studies in the necropolis 2 showed that the majority of graves were done in nauses – funerary buildings of rectangular and square form, built of mud bricks. Dome-shaped hillock (fire temple) with a diameter of 80 m and a height of 15 m is located 200 m north from shakhristan.

(3) Attributes

Materials received during the excavation of the settlement and the necropolis Kostobe show acquaintance of its people with different religious beliefs, propagating along the Silk Roads, such as Zoroastrianism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. The most important role for residents of Kostobe played Zoroastrianism, which is confirmed by studies of "sanctuary lamp" graves of the necropolis. Found silver earwig with a handle in the form of bodhisattva figurines, and the silver cross are the attributes of Buddhism and Christianity. The excavation of the necropolis also shows familiarity of citizens with the worldview of the nomads. Muslim burials refer to later period.

The Settlement Kostobe was a major cultural and commercial and manufacturing center of Southwestern Zhetysu. Planning, architecture, ceramics, and various household and ritual objects, funerary rites are similar to the monuments of the South, Northeastern Kazakhstan, Central Asia and the Middle East. Topography of the monument is close to the cities of Talas valley – Ak-Beshim and Krasnaya Rechka. Planning of Kostobe palace is similar to the synchronous complexes of the settlements in Central Asia: Kanka, Aktepa Yunusobadskoye, that indicates borrowing architectural traditions. Carved pieces is similar to materials of Afrasiab, Varakhsha also Samarra and Fustat. Since Kostobe carving and construction horizon are dated back to the 9th – 10th centuries, its presence here indicates the cultural links between the towns of Talas valley, located on the Silk Road route, with the cities of Central Asia and the Middle East. Funeral rites are similar to the necropolises of Penjikent, Shaga, Taraz, Krasnaya Rechka, Borizhar burials. Materials of Kostobe burial, illustrate the complex processes of interaction of nomadic Turkic and Sogdian settled population, which was manifested in the appearance of nomadic burials on the city necropolis. Actually the origin of Kostobe according to the written sources is associated with migration of the Sogdians from Bukhara to the area of the Talas river.

Developed system of fortifications of Kostobe provided for maintenance of exchange and trade.











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