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乌兹别克斯坦的丝绸之路遗产点Silk Roads Sites in Uzbekistan

2019-12-18 17:05| 发布者: IICC| 查看: 100| 评论: 0

摘要: Date of Submission:19/02/2010Criteria:(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)Category:CulturalSubmitted by:Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of UzbekistanRef.:5500Justification of Outstanding Universal ValueThe Silk Roads are routes of integration, exchange and
Date of Submission: 19/02/2010
Category: Cultural
Submitted by:
Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Ref.: 5500

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

The Silk Roads are routes of integration, exchange and dialogue between East and West that have contributed greatly to the common prosperity of humankind for almost 2 millennia. The whole of the route is more than the sum of its constituent parts. Flourishing in particular between the 2nd century BC and end of the 16th century AD, this network of routes, started initially from Chang'an (present-day Xi'an)and ultimately stretching from East Asia to the Mediterranean in the west, and down into the Indian subcontinent, facilitated and generated a two-way intercontinental trade in a dazzling array of trading goods. Of these, Chinese silk was among the most valuable, but it included materials such as precious metals and stones, ceramics, perfumes, ornamental woods, and spices in return for cotton and wool textiles, glass, wine, amber, carpets and the celebrated horses. This trade connected various civilizations, persisted over centuries and was sustained by a system of caravanserais, commercial settlements, trade cities and forts along its entire length of more than 10,000 km, which makes it arguably the longest cultural route in the history of humanity. But much more than trading goods was transported over the network of Silk Roads. Buddhism, Judaism, Islam and Nestorian, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeanism spread over the Silk Roads, Scientific and technological developments were also diffused by these routes, for example from China, paper, printing, gunpowder, cast iron, the crossbow, the magnetic compass, and porcelain, whilst engineering developments (particularly bridge building), the cultivation and working of cotton, tapestry weaving, calendrial sciences, vine cultivation, as well as certain glazing and metal working techniques spread from Central Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and the west. There was also a substantial two-way exchange of medical knowledge and medicines, as well as of what are now seen as universal fruit and other food crops. As such, the Silk Roads generated outstanding manifestations of global significance in the realms of economy, society, culture and the environment. The types of monuments, sites and cultural landscapes found along the Silk Roads can be categorized under:

1) Infrastructure (facilitating trade and transportation);

2) Production (of trading goods); and

3) Outcomes ( such as cities, art, knowledge as a result of contact and exchange).

The property includes outstanding examples of types of heritage under these categories. Attributes include:

  • Topographical and natural features
  • Urban patterns and architectural designs
  • Socio-economic development
  • Political events
  • Religious and spiritual values
  • Achievements in science and technology
  • Achievements in the arts (sculpture, painting, carving, etc.)
  • Intangible heritage

Under Category 1 Infrastructure, the sites among others, comprises caravanserais and inns; military posts, garrison stations and fortifications; bridges; irrigation systems; natural and cultural landmarks. Under Category 2 Production the sites reflect mining, metal working, manufacturing and handicrafts, and other industrial and production sites. Under Category 3 Outcomes the sites include trade cities, urban centres and settlements; religious, spiritual and ceremonial sites (including shrines, caves, tombs, sites of pilgrimage); and places of associations with political events, transfer of ideas, language, music, dance, poetry, etc.(ii) as the Silk Roads property exhibits preeminent interchanges of human values;

Criteria:

(iii) as the Silk Roads property is an outstanding example of the trade and dissemination of cultural traditions over long-distances;

(iv) as the Silk Roads property contains an outstanding example of urban, architectural and technological ensembles that was necessary to sustain this trade and exchange over almost two millennia;

(v) as the Silk Roads property bears an exceptional testimony to human interactions with the environment;

(vi) as the Silk Roads property is directly and tangibly associated with historic and living traditions, beliefs and value systems.


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